In this exercise I am to refer to the accompanying course textbook and read Room Six – Territories Pg 146+147.
I am then to investigate Gers and other textile based shelters/homes such as Wigwams, Tipis and Tents.
On consulting the accompanying course textbook I found a pahe of photographs of Mongolian Gers and a brief quote by a travelling artist.
My next step was to identify what each of the stated shelters are, I’ve always thought of Wigwams, Gers and Tipis as the same thing! I then moved onto looking into the history of each.
Definition of Ger from Wikipedia – “A traditional yurt (from the Turkic languages) or ger (Mongolian) is a portable, round tent covered with skins or felt and used as a dwelling by several distinct nomadic groups in the steppes of Central Asia. “
Construction notes –
Historically the people that used gers/yurts were often herding communities. The animals provided resources to these communities such as the wool from their coats to be made into felt. The National Geographic website explains that most yurts had three to five layers of felt covering them.
En.wikipedia.org. (2019). Yurt. [online] Available at: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yurt [Accessed 15 Dec. 2019].
Three Camel Lodge. (2019). History of the Ger – Three Camel Lodge. [online] Available at: https://www.threecamellodge.com/accommodations/history-of-the-ger/ [Accessed 15 Dec. 2019].
Draskovic (2019). RESEARCH ON MONGOLIAN GER. [online] Slideshare.net. Available at: https://www.slideshare.net/sandradraskovic/ninjin-mongolian-ger-research [Accessed 15 Dec. 2019].
Society, N. (2019). yurt. [online] National Geographic Society. Available at: https://www.nationalgeographic.org/encyclopedia/yurt/ [Accessed 15 Dec. 2019].
Definition of Wigwam from Wikipedia – ” The domed, round shelter was used by numerous Native American cultures….These structures are formed with a frame of arched poles, most often wooden, which are covered with some sort of bark roofing material….. roofing materials used include grass, brush, bark, rushes, mats, reeds, hides or cloth.”
Whilst looking at notes on how to construct a wigwam I found several mentions of ‘cattail mats’ or bark being used as a covering material. A cattail turned out to be a type of reed with broad flat leaves good for weaving – which made a lot more sense!
A wigwam appears to have been covered with whatever was at hand for the occupants. Bark, grasses, hides and reed mats were the things I found referenced most often with some mention of also using fabric.
En.wikipedia.org. (2019). Wigwam. [online] Available at: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wigwam [Accessed 15 Dec. 2019].
Zimmerman, F. (2019). Ojibwa Indian’s Wigwam Houses, Photograph, Gallery. [online] Indianspictures.blogspot.com. Available at: https://indianspictures.blogspot.com/2014/09/ojibwa-indians-wigwam-houses-photograph.html [Accessed 15 Dec. 2019].
Youtu.be. (2019). YouTube. [online] Available at: https://youtu.be/rb2s9vxrS_E [Accessed 15 Dec. 2019].
Nativetech.org. (2019). NativeTech: Wigwams – Basic Wigwam Construction. [online] Available at: http://www.nativetech.org/wigwam/construction.html [Accessed 15 Dec. 2019].
Encyclopedia Britannica. (2019). cattail | Description, Uses, & Facts. [online] Available at: https://www.britannica.com/plant/cattail [Accessed 15 Dec. 2019].
Definition of Tipi from Wikipedia – “A tipi (also teepee) is a tent, traditionally made of animal skins upon wooden poles. 2Historically, the tipi has been used by Indigenous peoples of the Plains in the Great Plains and Canadian Prairies of North America”
Construction Notes –
According to an article in the Guardian newspaper by P.Kingsley, the tipis were traditionally covered in bison hides. This prevailed until the 1880s, at this time, settlers driven west by the railroad expansion were culling significant numbers of bison. At this point the occupants of tipis were forced to start using canvas instead.
En.wikipedia.org. (2019). Tipi. [online] Available at: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tipi [Accessed 15 Dec. 2019].
Gonativeamerica.com. (2019). [online] Available at: https://www.gonativeamerica.com/tipi-tours [Accessed 15 Dec. 2019].
Theclassroom.com. (2019). [online] Available at: https://www.theclassroom.com/information-facts-on-teepees-12003579.html [Accessed 15 Dec. 2019].
Kingsley, P. (2019). Take 18 bison hides … how to make a tipi. [online] the Guardian. Available at: https://www.theguardian.com/travel/2010/jul/09/native-american-tipi [Accessed 15 Dec. 2019].
Definition of Tent from Wikipedia – “A shelter consisting of sheets of fabric or other material draped over, attached to a frame of poles or attached to a supporting rope. First used as portable homes by nomads, tents are now more often used for recreational camping and as temporary shelters.”
Construction Notes –
Care, G. and man-made, T. (2019). The History of the Tent: From mammoth to man-made. [online] Nikwax.com. Available at: https://www.nikwax.com/usblog/the-history-of-the-tent-infographic/ [Accessed 15 Dec. 2019].
http://www.turas.tv. (2019). A Brief History of Tents – where did tents originate? The History of Tents. – http://www.turas.tv. [online] Available at: https://www.turas.tv/2018/07/a-brief-history-of-tents/ [Accessed 15 Dec. 2019].
En.wikipedia.org. (2019). Tent. [online] Available at: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tent [Accessed 15 Dec. 2019].